(Peace be Upon her)
Title: az- Zahra'.
Agnomen: Ummu 'l-A'immah.
Father's name: Muhammad ibn `Abdillah.
Mother's name: khadijah bint khuwaylid.
Birth: Born in Mecca of Friday, 20th jumada ` th-thaaniyah in the fifth year after the declaration of the prophet - hood (615 AD).
Death: Died at the age of 18 in Medina on 14th Jumada ' l-ula 11 AH ( 632 AD);
buried in the graveyard called Jannatul-Baqi in Medina.
was the only daughter of the Holy Prophet and Hadrat khadijah. the circumstances
of her birth are described by Hadrat khadijah as follows: At the time of
the birth of Hadrat Fatimah, I sent for my neighboring qurayshite women
to assist me. They flatly refused, saying that I had betrayed them by supporting
Muhammad. I was perturbed for a while, when , to my great surprise, I sighted
four strange tall women with halos around them , approaching me. Finding
me dismayed, one of them addressed me thus, " O Khadijah! I am Sarah, the
mother of Ishaq, and the other three are, Mary the mother of Christ, Asiyah
the daughter of Muzahim, and Umm kulthum, the sister of Moses. We have
all been commanded by God to put our nursing knowledge at your disposal."
saying this, all of them sat around me and rendered the services of midwifery
till my daughter Fatimah was born. The motherly blessings and affection
received by Hadrat Fatimah were only for five years, after which Hadrat
Khadijah left for her heavenly home . Hereafter the Holy Prophet brought
* * *
When Fatimah come of age, there come
forward a number of aspirants to ask for her hand in marriage. The Holy
prophet was awaiting the Divine order in this respect, till Imam ` Ali
approached him and asked for her hand in marriage. The Holy Prophet come
to Hadrat Fatimah and asked, " My daughter ! Do you consent to be wedded
to ` Ali, as I am so commanded by Allah ? " Hadrat Fatimah thereupon bowed
her head in modesty. Umm Salamah narrates: " The face of Fatimah bloomed
with joy and her silence was so suggestive and conspicuous that the Holy
Prophet stood up reciting ` Allahu Akbar' ( Allah is most great ) .
Fatimah's silence is her acceptance."
On Friday, l st. dhi'l - hijjah 2 A H , the marriage ceremony took place.
All the Muhajirun ( Emigrants) and Ansar ( Helpers) of Medina assembled
in the mosque while Imam ` Ali was seated before the Holy Prophet with
all the ceremonious modesty of a bridegroom. they Holy Prophet first recited
an eloquent sermon and them announced: I have been commanded by Allah to
get Fatimah wedded to ` Ali, and so I do hereby solemnize the matrimony
between ` Ali and Fatimah on a dower of four hundred mithqal of silver.
Then he asked Imam ` Ali, " Do you consent to it, O `Ali ? " Yes, I do
, O Holy Prophet of Allah! " replied Imam ` Ali. Then the Holy Prophet
raised his hands to pray thus O my god ! bless both of them , sanctify
their progeny and grant them the keys of The beneficence, Thy treasures
of wisdom and Thy genius; and let them be a source of blessing and peace
to my ummah. Her children; Imam Hasan, Imam husayn, zaynab and um kultun,
are well - known for their piety , goodness and generosity. Their strength
of character and action changed the course of history and fortified Islam
which otherwise would have been lost to mankind.
* * *
Hardrat Fatimah inherited the genius
and wisdom, the determination and will - power, the piety and sanctity,
the generosity and benevolence, the devotion and worship of Allah, the
self - sacrifice and hospitality, the forbearance and patience, and the
knowledge and nobility of disposition of her illustrious father , both
in words and deeds. " I often witnessed my mother, "says Imam Husayn, "
absorbed in preayer from dusk to down. "Her generosity and compassion for
the poor was such that no destitute or beggar ever returned from her door
* * *
Property of Fadak
The Holy Prophet during his lifetime
gave Hadrat Fatimah a gift of very extensive from land , known as Fadak
, which was documented in her name as her absolute property. The death
of the Holy Prophet affected her very much and she was very sad and grief
- stricken and wept her heart out crying all the time . she was confronted,
after the demise of her father, with the deprivement of the rightful claim
of leadership of her husband Imam ` Ali , and the usurpation of her inheritance,
the Fadak. Throughout her life, she never spoke to those who had oppressed
her and deprived her of her rightful claims. She requested that her oppressors
should be kept away even from attending her funeral. Her ill - wishers
even resorted to physical violence. Once the door of her house was pushed
on her , and the child she was carrying was hurt and the baby - boy was
still born. Her house was set on fire. Having been molested and strichen
with grief, which crossed all limits of forbearance and endurance , she
expressed her sorrows in and elegy composed by herself to mourn her father
the Holy Prophet. A couplet of the elegy, with particular reference to
her woeful plight, she expressed thus: O my father ! after your death I
was subjected to such tortures and tyranny that if they had been inflicted
on the `Day' , it would have turned into ` Night'.
* * *
Hadrat Fatimah did not survive more
than seventy-five day after the demise of her father. she breathed her
last on the 14th jumada'l - ula 11 AH. Before her demise she bequeathed
the following as her will to Imam 'Ali: 1. O ` Ali, you will personally
perform my funeral rites. 2. Those who have displeased my should not be
allowed to attend my funeral. 3 .My corpse should be carried to the graveyard
at right. Thus Imam ` compliance with her will , performed all the funeral
rites and accompanied exclusively by her relatives and sons carried her
at night to Jannatu l-Baqi, where she was laid to rest and her wishes fulfilled.
The Holy Prophet said:
"whoever injures (bodily or sentimentally
) Fatimah, injures me ; and whoever injures me injures Allah; and whoever
injures Allah practices unbelief. O Fatimah ! If your wrath is incurred,
it incurs the wrath of Allah; and if you are happy, it makes Allah happy
M.H. shakir writers:
Fatimah, the only daughter of the Holy
prophet of Islam, was born I Mecca on 20 Th. Jumada ' th - thaniyah 18
BH. The good and noble lady Khadijah and the apostle of Allah bestowed
all their natural love, care and devotion on their lovable and only child
Fatimah, who in her turn was extremely fond of her parents. The princess
of the House of the Prophet, was very intelligent, accomplished and cheerful.
Her sermons, poems and sayings serve, as an index to her strength of character
and nobility of mind. Her virtues gained her the title " Our Lady of light.
she was tall, slender and endowed with great beauty, which caused her to
be called " az - Zahra' " ( the Lady of Light). she was called az - Zahra'
because her light used to shine among those in Heaven. After arriving in
Medina, she was married to ` Ali , in the first year hijrah, and she gave
birth to three sons and two daughters. Her children, Hasan, Husayn, Zaynab
and umm kul-thum. are well - known for their piety , goodness and generosity
Their strength of chracter and actions changed the course of history. The
Holy Prophet said, " Fatimah is a peace of my heart". He would go out to
receive his doughtier whenever she come from her husband's house.
Every morning on his way to the Mosque,
he would pass by Fatimah's house and say: " as-salamu ` alaykum ya ahlul-Bayti`n-nubuwwah
wa ma` dani ` r - risala " ( peace be on you O the Household of prophet
hood and the source of Messengership) Fatimah is famous and acknowledged
as the " sayyidatu 'n-nisa'i ' l-alamin " ( Leader of all the women of
the world for all times ) because the Prophethood of Muhammad would not
have been everlasting without her. The Prophet is the perfect example for
men, but could not be so for women. For all the verses revealed in the
Holy Qur'an for women, Fatimah is the perfect model, who translated every
year into action. In her lifetime, she was a complete woman, being Daughter,
wife and Mother at the some time.
Muhammad during his lifetime, gave
Fatimah a gift of very extensive farm lands, famous as Fadak, which were
documented in her name, as her absolute personal property. An heiress to
the remainder of her mother`s wealth, a princess who was the only daughter
of the holy prophet who was also a ruler, a lady whose husband was the
conqueror of Arab tribes and second only to her father in and position,
Fatimah could have led a luxurious life. But in spite of her wealth and
possessions, she worked, dressed, ate and lived very simply . she was very
generous; and none who come to her door, when away empty handed. Many times
she gave away her all and herself went without food. As a daughter, she
loved her parents so much , that she won their love and regard to such
and extent that the Holy prophet used to rise, whenever she come near him
As a wife, she was very devoted.
She never asked ` Ali for anything
in her whole life. As a mother , she cared for and brought up wonderful
children; they have lift their marks on the face of the world , which time
will not be able to eraze. The death of the
Apostle, affected her very much and she was very sad and grief- striken
and wept her heart out crying all the time. unfortunately, after the death
of the prophet, the government confiscated her famous land of Fadak and
gave it to the state. Fatimah was pushed behind her him door ( when they
attacked the house of ` Ali and took him to force him accept the caliphate
of Abu Baker), so that the child , she was carrying was hurt and the baby
boy Muhsin was still born.
Her house was set on fire by the Government.
The tragedy of her father's death and the unkindness of her fathers`s followers,
were too much for the good , gently and sensitive lady and she breathed
her last on 14 Th. Jumada ` l - ula 11 AH, exactly seventy - five days
after the death of her father, the Holy prophet of Islam. Fatimah died
in the prime of her life at the age of eighteen, and was buried in jannatu
'l-Baqi ` Medina.
(A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles, p. 47-53)